top of page

ReeLpedia® Australian Fishing Information, Technical Reference and Misconceptions, by Bernard (Bernie ) Ladd. 1/3/2014.

Sharks do not urinate as most animals do. Sharks convert urine to urea; a toxic compound which is really converted to ammonia. Urea is absorbed in the flesh of sharks and expelled through the skin. When a shark dies this urea is converted back to ammonia. That is why shark meat has a slight ammonia taste and smell. The Mako shark can expel this converted ammonia through the lateral line, acting as a kidney to do so, and this is why the slight ammonia taste and smell are not present in Mako fillets. Some more technical detail: "Cartilaginous fishes such as sharks rays and skates, have plasma that is approximately isosmotic to seawater. This unusual high osmotic concentration (compared to that of other vertebrates) is maintained by high levels of urea and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in the blood. In most vertebrates, levels of urea this high would damage proteins, but the presence of TMAO helps to stabilize these protein molecules against the adverse effects of urea. Excess of inorganic electrolytes, such as Na+ and Ca- which diffuse in the blood at the gills, are excreted by the way of kidneys and also by means of a special excretory organ called the rectal gland that is located at the end of the alimentary canal." Courtesy David (Dave)  Bartee, Marine Biologist, Florida, USA.

Galvanic Corrosion is corrosion damage created when dissimilar materials are joined by a corrosive electrolyte. Galvanic Corrosion is a common type of corrosion found in marine environments. For example, if two dissimilar metals that are touching (eg. Stainless Steel and Aluminium), come into frequent contact with an electrolyte (eg. salt-water or rainwater in coastal areas), there is a chance that Galvanic Corrosion will develop over time. This is a problem on yachts, where Stainless Steel fasteners are in contact with Aluminium or Carbon Fibre masts. Also on roofing, where Lead or Copper flashings are in contact with a Zincalume roof. This applies to "fishing reels" especially when used in a saltwater environment.

Verdigris is a common term for Copper Acetate, the bright bluish-green encrustation of natural patina that forms on Copper, Brass, Bronze, and Gunmetal when weathered and exposed to air (atmospheric oxidation) or seawater over a period of time.

Patina is a tarnish that forms on the surface of Copper, Bronze, and similar metals (produced by oxidation or other chemical processes). The patina is a sign of age, wear; and lengthy atmospheric exposure. Patinas can provide a protective layer to materials that would otherwise be damaged by corrosion or weathering. They may also be aesthetically appealing.

Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over Copper; Brass, Silver, Aluminum, and other metals, as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction. Tarnish does not always result from the sole effects of Oxygen in the air. For example, Silver needs Hydrogen Sulfide to tarnish; it does not tarnish with only Oxygen. It often appears as a dull, gray, or black film or coating over metal. Tarnish is a surface phenomenon, that is self-limiting, unlike rust. Only the top few layers of the metal react, and the layer of tarnish seals and protects the underlying layers from reacting. Tarnish preserves the underlying metal for outdoor use. The formation of tarnish is necessary in applications such as Copper roofing, and outdoor Copper, Bronze, and Brass statues and fittings.

Gunmetal is a Copper-Tin alloy, similar to Bronze, used where corrosion resistance is required, especially in seawater environments. It is easily cast and machines well. Typical composition: 88% Copper, 8% Tin, 4% Zinc. Gunmetal is sometimes confused with Copper, Brass; Bronze, or Nickel Bronze. -  Ladd B, 22/11/2013.

Ebonite was a brand name for a hard rubber first obtained by Charles Goodyear by vulcanizing rubber for prolonged periods. 30% to 40% of Ebonite consists of sulfur. Its name comes from its intended use as an artificial substitute for Ebony Wood. The material is known generically as hard vulcanized rubber and has formerly been called "vulcanite", although that name also refers to the mineral Vulcanite. Applications: Ebonite is often used in bowling balls, electric plugs, fishing reels or tackle, fountain pen bodies, saxophones, and clarinet mouthpieces. Ebonite is often seen as the wheel material in casters. It is also commonly used in physics classrooms to demonstrate the phenomenon of static electricity. For many years hard rubber was used in the cases of automobile batteries. Ebonite is used as an anti-corrosive lining for various (mainly storage) vessels that contain hydrochloric acid. Properties: The material is brittle, which poses problems in its use in battery cases, where the integrity of the case is vital to prevent leakage of such chemicals as sulphuric acid.


Bakelite (sometimes confused with Ebonite) is an early polymeric plastic made from phenol and formaldehyde under pressure at high temperatures, was invented by Leo Baekeland a Belgian chemist (1863-1944) in 1907. Bakelite is a castable, fire-resistant plastic. Its utility lies in its electrical non-conductivity and heat-resistant properties applicable to electrical insulators, radio and telephone castings, and such diverse products as fishing reels, kitchenware, and firearms. The "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products has made them collectible over the years. In 1978 Dr. Leo Hendrick Baekeland was inducted posthumously into the National Inventors Hall of Fame at Akron, Ohio, and into the Rail of Fame for United States Business Leadership in 1983. Common types: linen bakelite, impregnated (re-inforced with linen; canvas impregnated bakelite.

 Nickel Plating Vs. Chrome Plating: Their Differences Explained.

It is typical for most steel materials to undergo some type of plating process to slow down corrosion. nickel plating and chrome plating are two of the most common plating processes used by industrial businesses due to their durability and affordability.

Nickel Plating
Nickel plating is widely utilized for its traditional looks and cheaper price than chrome plating. These two factors have made it more commonplace in both industrial and residential settings. However, there are two types of nickel plating: conventional electrolytic plating and electroless plating. The former is one of the most affordable processes being offered today. It offers a high level of corrosion resistance for steel materials but has a muted finish that tends to wear out and tarnish over time. Electroless nickel plating, on the other hand, is just as durable and corrosion-resistant but has a nickel-phosphorus coating that leaves a glossier finish and sturdy texture.

Chrome Plating
Chrome plating leaves a notable iridescent blue hue on the steel surface. It is usually chosen for its customizable finish and durability. As with nickel plating, steel surfaces with chrome plating won’t corrode easily but are more resistant to abrasion. Chrome plating is commonly seen on a lot of automotive parts because of its attractive finish. It is also generally more expensive than nickel plating processes. Both processes are highly effective in adding reinforcement and protection to steel surfaces while providing them with an appealing finish.

ReeLpedia ®  >< )))) * >  Page 41.

Fishing reference information at: reeLpedia® R A page 41. Copyright © 2009-2024, Bernard (Bernie) Ladd,  All Rights Reserved.

bottom of page